PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AND MYCOTOXINSAcademic Year 2022/2023 - Teacher: ALESSANDRO VITALE
Expected Learning Outcomes
The teaching course aims to ensure to the students the basic tools and knowledge for the diagnosis of the main biotic alterations (from phytopathogenic fungi), abiotic and contamination from toxigenic fungi and their metabolites (mycotoxins) affecting the quality and quantity of plants in post-harvest and in storage; the student will acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to perform assessments, inspections and controls on the phytosanitary status of plant products at any stage of conservation, processing and marketing
Theoretical lessons for a total of 4 ECTS. Practical activities (seminars on known case studies, classroom and laboratory exercises, educational visits, etc.) for a total of 2 ECTS. If the teaching is given in a mixed or remote way, the necessary modifications may be introduced with respect to what was previously stated, in order to respect the program envisaged and reported in the present Syllabus. The achievement of the objectives will be pursued through lectures, seminars, exercises and excursions. For the lessons we will make use of the help of multimedia presentations, slides, computer databases, summary and explanatory diagrams that will allow you to deepen the basic concepts and fundamental notions of teaching. Any visits and educational excursions will also take place on other days and times to be agreed with the students by phone (095-7147413).
As guarantee of equal opportunities and in compliance with current laws, interested students can ask for a personal interview in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory measures, based on their specific needs and on teaching objectives of the discipline. It is also possible to ask the departmental contacts of CInAP (Center for Active and Participatory Integration - Services for Disabilities and/or DSAs), in the persons of professors Giovanna Tropea Garzia and Anna De Angelis.
Detailed Course Content
- Economic, historical, social and geographical consequences of fungal post-harvest diseases and in preharvest
- Concept of disease, symptoms and signs of disease, virulence, susceptibility, physiological alterations. Quantification of the susceptibility of hosts (plants and foodstuffs) to fungal pathogens and estimation of the virulence of a fungal pathogen; quantification of fungal inoculum;
- The classification of phytopathogenic fungi (including toxigenic fungi): functional, evolutionary, nomenclature, fungal structures and identification;
- Fungal diseases: Characters of phytopathogenic fungi (including toxigenic fungi), structure and organization, nutrition, factors that influence the fungal development of post-harvest diseases, germination and dispersion of spores, reproduction of fungi: sexual and asexual spores. Biological cycle of fungal diseases and several forms of phytopathogenic fungal epidemics;
- Host-pathogen interaction: pathogen attack mechanisms and host defense mechanisms;
- Strategies, methods and means of control adopted against phytopathogenic fungal diseases of plants in pre- and post-harvest: physical means, chemical means, biological means, integrated management, pesticide residues.
- Fungal diseases: rot caused by genera; Botrytis, Gloeosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria, Monilinia, Sclerotinia, Rhyzopus, Mucor, Colletotrichum; scab (Venturia spp.) from pome fruit warehouse.
- Main post-harvest abiotic diseases
- The main species of fungi producing mycotoxins and main mycotoxins contaminating food products of vegetable origin;
- Characteristics of mycotoxins, main groups and methods of mycotoxin determination, prevention and control mean against post-harvest vegetable mycotoxin contamination, legislative aspects;
Exercises: symptomatic diagnosis of phytopathological samples, isolation of fungi in culture, preparation and observation of fungal preparations under an optical microscope; traditional and molecular techniques for the identification of plant phytopathogenic fungi; in vivo pathogenicity tests of phytopathogenic fungi; indoor environmental monitoring techniques (air / surface matrices) for the isolation and identification of phytopathogenic microorganisms; quantification of the damage of a fungal disease.
1. De Cicco V., Bertolini P., Salerno M.G. Patologia post-raccolta dei prodotti vegetali. Piccin Ed. 2008.
Teaching material and lectures supplied by the professor during the course
2. Vannacci G. Patologia vegetale. Edises Università, Napoli prima edizione 2021
3. Matta A. Fondamenti di Patologia Vegetale. Patron Editore, Bologna, seconda edizione 2017.
4. Belli G. Elementi di Patologia Vegetale. Editore Piccin, Padova, seconda edizione 2012.
|1||Conseguenze economiche, storiche, sociali e geografiche delle malattie fungine nelle derrate alimentari e nelle piante coltivate||Appunti lezioni; Testo 2 cap 1; Testo 3 cap 1|
|2||Nozioni preliminari: concetto di malattia, sintomatologia e segni di malattia, virulenza, suscettibilità, alterazioni fisiologiche. Quantificazione della suscettibilità degli ospiti (piante e derrate) ai patogeni fungini e stima della virulenza di un patogeno fungino; quantificazione dell'inoculo fungino||Appunti lezioni; Testo 1 cap 1|
|3||La classificazione dei funghi fitopatogeni (inclusi i miceti tossigeni): funzionale, evolutiva, nomenclatura, strutture fungine e identificazione||Appunti lezioni; Testo 3 cap 12;Testo 4 cap 5|
|4||Le malattie fungine: generalità dei funghi fitopatogeni (inclusi i miceti tossigeni), struttura ed organizzazione, nutrizione, fattori che influenzano lo sviluppo fungino delle malattie in postraccolta, germinazione e dispersione delle spore, riproduzione dei funghi: spore sessuali e asessuali. Ciclo di sviluppo delle malattie fungine e forme diverse di epidemie da funghi fitopatogeni||Appunti delle lezioni; Testo 1 cap. 4; Testo 4 cap. 5|
|5||- Interazione ospite-patogeno: meccanismi di attacco dei patogeni e meccanismi di difesa dell’ospite||Appunti lezioni; Testo 1 cap 3; Testo 4 cap 5|
|6||Strategie, metodi e mezzi di lotta contro le malattie da funghi fitopatogeni delle piante in pre- e post-raccolta: mezzi fisici, mezzi chimici, mezzi biologici, lotta integrata, residui di fitofarmaci||Appunti lezioni; Testo 1 cap 3; Testo 4 cap 5|
|7||Malattie da funghi: marciumi causate dai generi; Botrytis, Gloeosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria, Monilinia, Sclerotinia, Rhyzopus, Mucor, Colletotrichum; ticchiolatura (Venturia e Fusicladium) da magazzino delle pomacee||Appunti lezioni; Testo 1 cap 5 e 7|
|8||Principali malattie abiotiche in post-raccolta||Appunti lezioni; Testo 1 cap 5 e 7|
|9||Le principali specie di funghi produttori di micotossine e principali micotossine contaminanti i prodotti alimentari di origine vegetale (Filiera cerealicola; filiera orto-frutticola; filiera viti-vinicola)||Appunti lezioni; Testo 1 cap 9; Testo 2 cap. 8|
|10||Caratteristiche delle micotossine, principali gruppi e metodi di determinazione delle micotossine, prevenzione e lotta alle contaminazioni da micotossine dei vegetali in post-raccolta, cenni sugli aspetti legislativi||Appunti delle lezioni; Testo 4 cap. 13|
Learning Assessment Procedures
Learning evaluation will be assessed by oral examinations. No checks in progress are foreseen. A single meeting is planned in the middle of course to ascertain the learning level and the interest degree of the students with clarification of doubts. The evaluation of the student's preparation will take place on the basis of the following criteria: learning ability and level of depth of the topics covered, quality of the contents, ability to connect with other topics covered within the program, properties of synthesis and exposure, ability to report practical examples and student's reasoning skills.
Verification of learning can also be carried out by online way if it will be necessary.
The score assignment follows the adopted scheme:
Not suitable for passing examination
Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Heavy shortcomings. Significant inaccuracies
Ability to analyze and synthesize: Irrelevant. Frequent generalizations. Inability to synthesize
Use of references: Completely inappropriate
Knowledge and understanding of the topic: At the threshold level. Obvious imperfections
Analysis and synthesis skills: Just enough skills
Use of references: As appropriate
Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Routine knowledge Analysis and synthesis skills: It is capable of correct analysis and synthesis. Argue logically and consistently
Using references: Use standard references
Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Good knowledge
Analysis and synthesis skills: Has good analysis and synthesis skills. The topics are expressed consistently
Using references: Use standard references
Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Knowledge more than good
Ability to analyze and synthesize: He has considerable abilities of analysis and synthesis
Use of references: Has well explored the topics
Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Excellent knowledge
Ability to analyze and synthesize: He has considerable abilities of analysis and synthesis.
Use of references: Important insights.