# FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS AND MACHINERY
Module Physics

**Academic Year 2023/2024**- Teacher:

**DOMENICO LO PRESTI**

## Expected Learning Outcomes

The student is required to achieve the following educational objectives:

- knowing how to apply the notions concerning physical quantities and dimensional analysis properly;
- knowing how to apply vector calculus in solving physical problems of the surrounding world;
- be able to solve questions relating to kinematics, static and dynamic problems of the material point and the rigid body;
- knowing how to apply the knowledge of fluid statics and fluid dynamics to real problems;
- know how to apply the knowledge of optics to real problems;
- know how to apply the fundamental concepts related to electromagnetism.

## Course Structure

The teaching (6 CFU) includes 28 hours of lectures and 28 hours of other activities, mainly guided numerical exercises for solving problems and for in-depth analysist.

PowerPoint presentations are mainly used to conduct lessons and exercises.

If teaching is given in a mixed formula or remotely, necessary changes may be introduced to what was previously stated in order to comply with the provided and reported syllabus. Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

**Information for students with disabilities and/or DSA**

As a guarantee of equal opportunities and in compliance with current laws, interested students can ask for a personal interview in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory measures, based on their specific needs and on teaching objectives of the discipline. It is also possible to ask the departmental contacts of CInAP (Centro per l’Inclusione Attiva e Partecipata - Servizi per le Disabilità e/o i DSA), in the persons of professor Anna De Angelis.

## Required Prerequisites

## Attendance of Lessons

## Detailed Course Content

1. Introduction

State of a physical system and physically significant quantities; fundamental and derived units of measurement- Dimensional equations; Introduction to statistics and error theory.

2. Vector calculus

Reference systems and coordinate systems; Vectors as geometric entities; Vectors in physics and their use in physical space two-dimensional and three-dimensional; Vector and scalar quantities; The vectors in the plane and their decomposition by components; Versors; Sum between vectors; Scalar product and vector product between vectors; Multiplication of a scalar by a vector; Applications

3. Mechanics

Description of the motion of a body - Reference systems - Principle of inertia - Second law of dynamics - Third law of dynamics - Conservation of momentum - Force fields - Work of a force - Kinetic energy theorem - Conservative fields - Potential - Conservation of mechanical energy - Moment of forces - Conservation of angular momentum.

4. Mechanics of fluids

Properties of fluids - Statics of fluids: Pascal, Stevin, and Archimedes' laws - Ideal fluids and Bernoulli's theorem - Laminar motion of a viscous fluid: Poiseuille's law - Turbulent flow - Sedimentation - Surface phenomena: Laplace's law and capillarity phenomena .

5. Electromagnetic phenomena

Electric charges and Coulomb's law; Electric fields and sources of the electric field; Gauss's law; Electric potential and energy potential; Capacitance and capacitors; Current and Ohm's laws; Magnetic fields and sources; Time-varying magnetic fields; Introduction to Maxwell's Laws; Electromagnetic waves and properties; Applications

6. Wave phenomena

Free mechanical oscillations - Energy of a harmonic oscillator - Progressive harmonic waves - Longitudinal and transverse waves - Plane and spherical waves - Monochromatic waves - Fourier analysis - Doppler effect - Huygens principle - Sound and its characteristics - Physics of the ear - Ultrasound.

7. Elements of optics

Reflection and refraction - Snell's law - Approximation of geometric optics - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses - Geometric construction of images - Microscope - Physical optics - Coherent sources - Interference - Diffraction - Diffraction grating - Resolving power of an optical instrument - Polarization.

## Textbook Information

1. D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker "Fondamenti di Fisica" (2015) Casa Ed. Ambrosiana;

2. Mazzoldi, Nigro, Voci: “Elementi di Fisica Vol. 1 – Meccanica e Termodinamica. Seconda edizione.” (EdiSES)

Students are free to use any other text that may be more convenient for them.

The lecture notes (slides of the lectures) are available on the studium website at the following link:

https://studium.unict.it/dokeos/2021/main/document/document.php?cidReq=23013&curdirpath=/shared_folder

Author | Title | Publisher | Year | ISBN |
---|---|---|---|---|

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker | Fondamenti di Fisica | Casa Ed. Ambrosiana | 2015 | 13: 9788808182296 |

Mazzoldi, Nigro, Voci | Elementi di Fisica Vol. 1 – Meccanica e Termodinamica. Seconda edizione | EdiSES | 2007 | 9788879594189 |

## Course Planning

Subjects | Text References | |
---|---|---|

1 | Introduzione | dispense |

2 | Calcolo vettoriale | dispense |

3 | Meccanica | dispense |

4 | Meccanica dei fluidi | dispense |

5 | Elettromagnetismo | dispense |

6 | Fenomeni ondulatori | dispense |

7 | Elementi di ottica | dispense |

## Learning Assessment

### Learning Assessment Procedures

*Ongoing
checks*

There are
two ongoing tests, roughly in the middle and towards the end of the course (the
dates and methods will be communicated in advance during the period).

The two tests, with closed answers, will focus on the course’s first and second parts.

The score on
the two tests must be more excellent than 15 points.

If the student passes both tests, the average of the two marks, if higher than 18/30, will be proposed as the final mark.

If the student does not accept the grade or does not reach the stage of 18/30, she will have to take an oral exam on the whole program.

Those who do not take both non-compulsory ongoing tests will be able to sit the oral exam at the first available session.

Concerning the oral exam:

The student’s preparation will be evaluated based on the following criteria: learning ability and level of depth of the topics covered, properties of synthesis and exposition, and the student's ability to reason.

The vote follows the following scheme:

Unsuitable

Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Important shortcomings. Significant inaccuracies

Ability to analyse and synthesise: Irrelevant. Frequent generalisations. Inability to synthesise

Use of references: Completely inappropriate

18-20

Knowledge and understanding of the topic: At the threshold level. Obvious imperfections

Analysis and synthesis skills: Just enough skills

Use of references: As appropriate

21-23

Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Routine knowledge Analysis and synthesis skills: It is capable of correct analysis and synthesis. Argue logically and consistently

Using references: Use standard references.

24-26

Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Good knowledge

Analysis and synthesis skills: Has good analysis and synthesis skills. The arguments are expressed consistently.

Using references: Use standard references.

27-29

Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Knowledge more than good

Ability to analyse and synthesise: He has considerable skills in analysis and synthesis

Use of references: Has explored the topics.

30-30L

Knowledge and understanding of the topic: Excellent knowledge

Ability to analyse and synthesise: He has considerable skills in analysis and synthesis.

Use of references: Important insights.

### Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

(Oral)

- Discuss the principles of conservation of mechanical energy, momentum and angular momentum;
- Reflection, refraction and Snell's law;
- Bernoulli equation for an ideal fluid and applications;
- Describe the phenomenology related to electric and magnetic fields

(Ongoing Checks)

- A cannon fires a projectile at speed v0 = 100 m / s. Calculate the gun firing angle to have the maximum range and determine its value.

- Calculate the pressure exerted by the weight force of a cube-shaped body made of aluminium, whose edge is 12 cm, resting with one face of the cube on a horizontal plane.