# FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS AND MACHINERY

**Academic Year 2021/2022**- 1° Year

**Teaching Staff**

- Physics:
**Domenico Lo Presti** - Mechanics and Machinery:
**Emanuele Cerruto**

**Credit Value:**12

**Scientific field**

- FIS/01 - Experimental physics
- AGR/09 - Agricultural machinery and mechanization

**Course Language:**Italian

**Taught classes:**63 hours

**Exercise:**42 hours

**Term / Semester:**2°

## Learning Objectives

**Physics**The student is required to achieve the following educational objectives:

- knowing how to apply the notions concerning physical quantities and dimensional analysis properly;

- knowing how to apply vector calculus in solving physical problems of the surrounding world;

- be able to solve questions relating to kinematics, static and dynamic problems of the material point and the rigid body;

- knowing how to apply the knowledge of fluid statics and fluid dynamics to real problems;

- know how to apply the knowledge of optics to real problems;

- know how to apply the fundamental concepts related to electromagnetism.

**Mechanics and Machinery**To give the students the basic knowledge of applied mechanics and of the main machinery present in the agro industrial sector, useful for a proper management of the processes. To emphasize the engineering approach to the discipline, accustoming the students towards a critical evaluation of the numerical results. At the end of the course students will know the essential parameters (power, efficiency, elements for designing) of the main machines of interest in the agri-food sector (heat exchangers, pumps, refrigeration machines, internal combustion engines), as well as the main basic processes for the continuation of studies in the field of food technologies (heat transmission, thermodynamics of ideal gases, moist air thermodynamics).

## Course Structure

**Physics**The teaching (6 CFU) includes 35 hours of lectures and 14 hours of other activities, mainly guided numerical exercises for solving problems and for in-depth analysist. PowerPoint presentations are mainly used to conduct lessons and exercises. If teaching is given in a mixed formula or remotely, necessary changes may be introduced to what was previously stated in order to comply with the provided and reported syllabus. Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

**Information for students with disabilities and/or DSA**As a guarantee of equal opportunities and in compliance with current laws, interested students can ask for a personal interview in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory measures, based on their specific needs and on teaching objectives of the discipline. It is also possible to ask the departmental contacts of CInAP (Center for Active and Participatory Integration - Services for Disabilities and/or DSAs), in the persons of professors Giovanna Tropea Garzia and Anna De Angelis.

**Mechanics and Machinery**The teaching (6 CFU) includes 28 hours of lectures and 28 hours of other activities, mainly guided numerical exercises for solving problems of practical interest for the profession of food technologist. PowerPoint presentations are mainly used to conduct lessons and exercises. If teaching is given in a mixed formula or remotely, necessary changes may be introduced to what was previously stated in order to comply with the provided and reported syllabus. Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

**Information for students with disabilities and/or DSA**As a guarantee of equal opportunities and in compliance with current laws, interested students can ask for a personal interview in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory measures, based on their specific needs and on teaching objectives of the discipline. It is also possible to ask the departmental contacts of CInAP (Center for Active and Participatory Integration - Services for Disabilities and/or DSAs), in the persons of professors Giovanna Tropea Garzia and Anna De Angelis.

## Detailed Course Content

**Physics**1. Introduction

State of a physical system and physically significant quantities - Units of measurement - Dimensional equations

2. Vector calculus

Reference systems and coordinate systems; Vectors as geometric entities; Vectors in physics and their use in physical space two-dimensional and three-dimensional; Vector and scalar quantities; The vectors in the plane and their decomposition by components; Versors; Sum between vectors; Scalar product and vector product between vectors; Multiplication of a scalar by a vector; Applications

3. Mechanics

Description of the motion of a body - Reference systems - Principle of inertia - Second law of dynamics - Third law of dynamics - Conservation of momentum - Force fields - Work of a force - Kinetic energy theorem - Conservative fields - Potential - Conservation of mechanical energy - Moment of forces - Conservation of angular momentum.

4. Mechanics of fluids

Properties of fluids - Statics of fluids: Pascal, Stevin, and Archimedes' laws - Ideal fluids and Bernoulli's theorem - Laminar motion of a viscous fluid: Poiseuille's law - Turbulent flow - Sedimentation - Surface phenomena: Laplace's law and capillarity phenomena .

5. Electromagnetic phenomena

Electric charges and Coulomb's law; Electric fields and sources of the electric field; Gauss's law; Electric potential and energy potential; Capacitance and capacitors; Current and Ohm's laws; Magnetic fields and sources; Time-varying magnetic fields; Introduction to Maxwell's Laws; Electromagnetic waves and properties; Applications

6. Wave phenomena

Free mechanical oscillations - Energy of a harmonic oscillator - Progressive harmonic waves - Longitudinal and transverse waves - Plane and spherical waves - Monochromatic waves - Fourier analysis - Doppler effect - Huygens principle - Sound and its characteristics - Physics of the ear - Ultrasound.

7. Elements of optics

Reflection and refraction - Snell's law - Approximation of geometric optics - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses - Geometric construction of images - Microscope - Physical optics - Coherent sources - Interference - Diffraction - Diffraction grating - Resolving power of an optical instrument - Polarization.

Attendance to classroom lessons is mandatory.

Attendance signatures are collected during lessons.

Classroom lessons are normally held twice a week.**Mechanics and Machinery**Fundamentals of mechanics: International System of Units (SI); forces applied to the machines; mechanical work; friction: sources and remedies; efficiency; basics on power transmission systems.

Applied thermodynamics (thermodynamic system, first and second law of thermodynamic, thermodynamic diagrams); heat transmission in steady state condition (conduction, convection, radiation); gases and vapours (quality, use of table of water vapour); moist air properties (humidity, enthalpy, psychrometric charts).

Basic machinery in agro industrial plants: heat exchanger (equi- and counter-flow, sizing), pumps (positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps, power pump calculation), compressors, centrifugal separators and extractors, main electrical machines, Otto and Diesel internal combustion engines, refrigeration cycles.

## Textbook Information

**Physics**1. D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker "Fundamentals of Physics" (2015) Casa Ed. Ambrosiana;

2. Mazzoldi, Nigro, Voices: “Elements of Physics Vol. 1 - Mechanics and Thermodynamics. Second edition." (EdiSES)

Students are free to use any other text that may be more convenient for them.

The lecture notes (slides of the lectures) are available on the studium website at the following link:

https://studium.unict.it/dokeos/2021/main/document/document.php?cidReq=23013&curdirpath=/shared_folder

**Mechanics and Machinery**1. Anzalone G., Bassignana P., Brafa Musicoro G.,

*Fondamenti di meccanica e macchine*, Hoepli.2. Çengel Y.,

*Termodinamica e trasmissione del calore*, Mc GrawHill.3. Teaching material provided during lectures